History of prosthetic reconstructions of the craniofacial defects from ancient to modern times.
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Katedra Protetyki Stomatologicznej, Warszawski Uniwersytet Medyczny Department of Prosthodontics, Medical University of Warsaw
Anna Cybulska   

Katedra Protetyki Stomatologicznej, Warszawski Uniwersytet Medyczny, Binieckego 6, 02-097, Warszawa, Polska
Submission date: 2022-06-13
Final revision date: 2022-07-21
Acceptance date: 2022-09-06
Publication date: 2022-09-07
Prosthodontics 2022;72(3):288–296
Tissue defects in the head and neck area resulting from congenital malformations, diseases, trauma, or surgical cancer treatment have been restored for centuries using a variety of techniques and materials. The aim of prosthetic rehabilitation was to regain lost functions, such as speech, breathing, chewing, and swallowing, and to obtain an aesthetic appearance. The technologies and materials used to produce such restorations have changed over time in order to obtain an exact replica of the missing tissues, providing comfortable and aesthetic prostheses made of easy to process and biocompatible materials having adequate durability parameters. The discovery of osseointegration and the use of titanium implants in prosthetic rehabilitation significantly improved the retention and stabilization of maxillofacial defects restorations. Currently, acrylic resins, silicone elastomers, and light-cured resins for 3D printing are widely used for such applications. The development of CAD/ CAM technology enables precise imaging of the prosthetic foundation, the design, and production of restorations bypassing some clinical and laboratory stages. The future rehabilitation of patients with head and neck defects may improve due to the development of biotechnology and nanotechnology and their application in restoring the functions of lost tissues and organs.