Occurrence of risk factors for oral mucosa candidiasis and their frequency – retrospective analysis
Mariusz Bochniak 1  
,   Aleksandra Cydejko 1  
,   Aida Kusiak 1  
,   Dariusz Świetlik 2  
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Katedra i Klinika Periodontologii i Chorób Błony Śluzowej Jamy Ustnej, Gdański Uniwersytet Medyczny, Polska
Zakład Biostatystyki i Sieci Neuronowych, Gdański Uniwersytet Medyczny, Polska
Mariusz Bochniak   

Katedra i Klinika Periodontologii i Chorób Błony Śluzowej Jamy Ustnej, Gdański Uniwersytet Medyczny, Orzeszkowej 18, 80-208, Gdańsk, Polska
Submission date: 2020-04-24
Final revision date: 2020-06-24
Acceptance date: 2020-08-31
Publication date: 2020-09-05
Prosthodontics 2020;70(3):289–303
Candidiasis is one of the most common diseases of oral mucosa. It affects all age groups, in particular the elderly population. Yeast-like fungi are constituants of natural oral microflora. A number of risk factors are known to contribute to the clinically overt infection, both local and systemic, which disrupts the biological balance of the oral environment.

Aim of the study:
To perform a retrospective assessment of the frequency of occurrence of potential risk factors for fungal infection among patients diagnosed with oral candidiasis.

Material and methods:
The study group consisted of 228 people (152 women, 76 men), on average aged 60.9 ± 13.5 years, diagnosed with candidiasis of oral mucosa. A retrospective analysis of medical records was conducted, taking into account the data from the medical interview and physical examination, which concerned potential risk factors for fungal infections.

Candidiasis was diagnosed almost twice as often in women as in men. Only in about 8% of cases no recognized risk factors for fungal infection were found. The dominant risk factor was the use of removable dentures (65.35% of patients). Diseases associated with potential disorders of immunity were found in 25% of cases. There were no significant gender differences related to the prevalence of the analysed factors, with the exception of nicotine addiction, observed significantly more frequently in men.

As far as the reduction of the incidence of fungal infections is concerned, the important issue is increasing multi-specialist dental care for patients using removable prosthetic restorations, also taking into account the frequent co-occurrence of xerostomia.