Clinical and epidemiological assessment of adolescents and young adults with craniofacial congenital and acquired disorders
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Katedra Protetyki Stomatologicznej, Warszawski Uniwersytet Medyczny
Acceptance date: 2020-02-21
Publication date: 2020-05-27
Corresponding author
Elżbieta Wojtyńska
Katedra Protetyki Stomatologicznej, Warszawski Uniwersytet Medyczny, UCS, 02-097 Warszawa, ul. Binieckiego 6.
Prosthodontics 2020;70(2):144-155
Prevention of consequences of the stomatognathic system disorders in adolescents and young adults and the improvement of their everyday quality of life dictates the need to undertake interdisciplinary rehabilitation at different stages of development. Congenital developmental defects (cleft lips and palate, hypodontia, oligodontia, ectodermal dysplasia) have been identified as the major causes of craniofacial defects. Dental trauma and loss of teeth due to caries-induced substantial damage to hard tissues lead to acquired defects. Prosthetic rehabilitation aims to improve the function and reconstruction of lost tissues but also to improve the appearance and well-being of young patients.

Aim of the study:
To perform the clinical and epidemiological assessment of adolescents and young adults with craniofacial congenital and acquired disorders.

Material and methods:
A group of 73 patients with oral developmental abnormalities aged 2.5 to 30 years were qualified for this study. In order to assess the occurrence of morphological disorders and functional abnormalities of the stomatognathic system, a medical history file was developed based on the data obtained from anamnesis and clinical examinations, supplemented with information from accessory examinations. The patients were divided based on Carrel and Chialastri’s classification.

In the analysis of the etiology of disorders in particular age groups, three causes of stomatognathic system disorders were identified among patients up to 6 years of age: congenital defects, acquired defects due to trauma and caries-induced premature loss of teeth. In the group of >6-year-olds, congenital developmental defects along with coexisting loss of teeth, such as isolated oligodontia, ectodermal dysplasia or fibrous dysplasia, prompted dental appointments to seek prosthetic treatment. Traumas and caries were other factors predisposing to disturbances and abnormalities. In the group of patients >12 years of age, trauma and congenital defects were the most frequent pathogenic factors. The group of young adults was dominated by patients with hypodontia, diagnosed ectodermal syndrome and isolated oligodontia, and with cleft lips and palate.

Clinical-epidemiological assessment of adolescents with congenital and acquired disorders of the facial cranial area indicates difficulties in prosthetic rehabilitation in this group of patients, dependent on the etiopathogenesis of the disorder, the dynamics of the prosthetic base changes related to the age and development of the craniofacial part, with resultant decrease in patients’ quality of life.

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