Developmental disorders of the stomatognathic system in children with deciduous dentition – causes, prosthetic rehabilitation
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Katedra Protetyki Stomatologicznej, Warszawski Uniwersytet Medyczny
Acceptance date: 2021-05-27
Publication date: 2021-06-15
Prosthodontics 2021;71(2):123–135
Prosthetic rehabilitation of children with developmental disorders of the craniofacial region is a complicated and multistage process of treatment. This is due to varied etiopathogenesis, the presence of clinical symptoms, degree of tissue deformation, presence of systemic comorbidities and the dynamic development of the stomatognathic system. Congenital developmental and acquired defects, have been identified as the major causes of craniofacial defects in young patients Prosthetic rehabilitation is aimed at improving masticatory functions, restoring damaged tissues, replacing the lost ones and improving one’s physical appearance. This can be achieved through tailoring appropriate therapeutic methods with the use of devices that correspond to the developmental dynamics of an individual patient.

Aim of the study:
To assess abnormalities within the stomatognathic system of patients with deciduous dentition, determine possible therapeutic solutions, perform treatment and develop an algorithm for the prosthetic rehabilitation of patients with masticatory disorders depending on the etiology and the type of disorders.

Material and methods:
Basing on the age of the patients and the degree of stomatognathic system development a group of children with deciduous dentition was selected. In the study material, 14% of all the studied patients were children between 2.5 and under 6 years of age. Diagnostic and terapeutic managment included a medical history, objective and radiological examinations on the basis of which the diagnosis was formulated and the optimal treatment plan was implemented.

The etiological analysis confirmed three main causes of the stomatognathic system disorders: congenital defects where developmental disorders were induced by hypoplasia of tissues and organs originated from epiblast and acquired defects due to trauma and caries-related premature loss of teeth. The analysis of clinical cases and implemented interdisciplinary therapy helped to establish the management algorithm for prosthetic treatment of juvenile patients.

1. Clinical and epidemiological assessment of patients with developmental disorders of the facial part of the skull and with deciduous dentition indicates that difficulties in the prosthetic rehabilitation in this group of patients result from the clinical picture of disorders, dynamic changes in the prosthetic base associated with the growth of the stomatognathic system, and also from the difficult adaptation of small patients to the therapeutic team and lack of cooperation with parents. 2. The algorithm for the procedure in prosthetic rehabilitation of patients with developmental disorders must be based on the main determinants including the clinical picture of the disorders and the dynamics of the stomatognathic system development.